Complete either: The whole of Section A or The whole of Section B or The whole of Section C or The whole of Section D

A second "BOGUK gets snappy" could be earned for doing a subsequent section

Section A - Standard Negative Photography, or Slides

Clause 1 Know how to use your camera, what size film it takes, how to load and unload your film and how to keep your camera clean and remove dust and grit safely. Understand how any special functions can help your photography.

My camera is a Canon Sure Shot (point and shoot) it takes 35mm film and a 3 volt lithium camera battery. Loading the film is easy just put the roll in then extend the film so that it goes round a roller the other side close the door. Once the camera is switched on it automatically winds to the first picture. The camera when not being used is kept in a camera bag which also has a spare film and battery. My husband has a more complicated SLR camera and has a puffer type brush and a special lens cleaning cloth (also good for glasses/sunglasses) which is lint free. These are used if any dust should get on the lens or my toddler manages to get a sticky finger on it. The camera has no special functions, unless you count flash and red eye reduction

Clause 2 Know the functions of the different parts of a camera, such as the lens and shutter. Explain briefly how a negative and a positive of a print or transparency are produced.

Lens - This is the glass bit, over the hole in the iris which focuses the light entering the aperture onto the film.

Iris - This is the hole in the camera through which the light passes after being focused by the lens.

Shutter - This is the part of the camera which when open allows light to pass through the lens and iris and when closed stops light from passing through, the faster the shutter opens and closes the less light passes through, and vice versa

Negative prints are produced by placing the exposed film into a tank with a chemical developer, this is left for a few minutes before being poured away. The chemical fixer is poured into the tank next. Finally the film is hung up and left to dry in a dust free area.

The first stage of producing a positive prints is to use an enlarger to project the negative onto photographic paper, this must be done in the dark so that no stray light spoils the paper. Lighter areas of the negative allow more light to get to the paper than darker ones. This paper is the processed in the dark using developer and fixer to produce the final print.

Clause 3 Understand the difference between a compact (point & shoot) camera, APS and SLR. Discuss the positive and negative aspects of each type of camera.

Point and shoot: Does exactly what it says on the label. Point the camera and press the button. Some cameras have other functions such as zoom and red eye reduction. Film is relatively easy to load. Prints can be produced in a number of sizes such as 6 x 4 or 7 x 5 when processed.

APS (Advanced photo system): Similar to point and shoot though you have the option of selecting from three different size of print format (6 x 4, 7 x 4 or 10 x 4). Film is easier to load as it just has to be dropped in. Negatives remain locked in the film roll and therefore can't be damaged. An index print shows pictures in thumb nail format making it easier to select prints for reprinting or enlargement

SLR (Single Lens Reflex): A much more complicated camera, the sort favoured by professionals and keen amateurs. Requires the photographer to manually focus the camera etc. Has a number of additional features such as zoom. Various filters can be added to the camera for different affects on the final print. Prints can be produced in a number of sizes such as 6 x 4 or 7 x 5 when processed.

Digital Camera. Comes in both point and shoot and SLR types. There is no film involved, all pictures are stored on memory cards

Digital cameras are more expensive than the non digital variety, though price is coming down, a PC is also needed as is a printer if the photographs are to be printed. Once you have all the necessary equipment there is a minimal outlay. The photographer can manipulate the pictures, process and print them in any size however the quality will depend on the quality of printer and paper used. The cards that the photographs are stored on can be reused once the pictures have been downloaded. It is possible to delete unwanted/unsuccessful photos immediately.

Non digital cameras can be bought very cheaply (such as disposable ones). A PC/printer is not required for processing however prints can be put onto CD at the point of processing. The point and shoot cameras are simple and fairly idiot proof, though my dad needs help loading the film. Although it is possible to develop films yourself if you're a seriously into photography most people will have them professionally processed. There are obviously costs involved each time a film is processed, replacement films and batteries are required enlargements can also be very expensive however a good camera will produce better prints than all but a very expensive digital camera.

Clause 4 Use at least two different types of film (e.g. slide, black & white, "Ultra") and understand the significance of the figures and developing instructions on the film carton and on the cassette or wrapper (for example, ISO Din, C41). Know when to use each type of film.

On the side of a film cassette is a pattern of black and silver squares this is called a DX code and indicates a films ISO rating. Modern camera can detect this, on older cameras the ISO rating has to be set. The difference between films of different speeds is the size of their crystals. Fast films, ISO 400 and above, are perfect for taking pictures in dim light and for action shots. They have larger grains than slow films so that they can react to much less light. Slow films ISO 50 and below are good for fine detail.

Clause 5 Explain at least two of the following, and provide photographs as evidence of your understanding:

a. the use of a lens hood

b. ultra-violet or skylight filters

c. coloured filters

Borrowed a childrens photography book from the library that explained how to use cellophane sweet wrappers as a substitute for coloured filters. Apparently all you need to do is selloptape a transparent coloured sweet wrapper (the sort that can be found in Quality Street) over the lens and take a picture. The one shown in the book had been scrunched up before being pulled taught and taped over the lens. I haven't tried this but it could give interesting results though I would have thought that a better result would be achieved by use a wrapper that hadn't been scrunched.

d. depth of field

e. what camera shake is and how to avoid it

This is caused when your hands are unsteady when taking a photograph. To avoid camera shake hold the camera firmly and try to relax. To avoid shake completely use a tripod, though strong winds could also affect this. I haven't been able to produce a picture as evidence for this that I have taken but could include one that my husband has taken with my camera just to show my understanding

f. how to avoid 'red eye' when using a flash

Red eye is when light from the camera flash penetrates the eye of the person(s) being photographed, the light will bounce back to the camera reflecting the inside of the eye. My camera is always set to red eye reduction and though I have left it off whilst working for this badge I have not managed to produce a red eyed picture. I could manipulate one in paint shop pro, though this would be cheating.

g. the use of a remote control or self-time function

This is caused when your hands are unsteady when taking a photograph. To avoid camera shake hold the camera firmly and try to relax. To avoid shake completely use a tripod, though strong winds could also affect this. I haven't been able to produce a picture as evidence for this that I have taken but could include one that my husband has taken with my camera just to show my understanding

Clause 6 Take a series of at least 10 photographs, on one of the following themes:

a. Various aspects of Guiding (try to avoid the clichés!)

b. "The World Around Us"

c. "People and Culture"

d. "Get Active!"

e. "Architecture & History"

f. "Surprise yourself!"

g. A similar topic of your own choice

I have chosen option g. see this page for my photographs under the heading of Creoso I Cas-Gwent (welcome to Chepstow for the uninitiated). Unfortunately the day I took the pictures was very sunny and consequently had problems with shaddows. in some cases I couldn't get very close (unless I hired a boat and the tide was in) Click here for my photo album

Clause 7 Do one of the following:

a. Produce a sequence of 5-15 photographs that tell a story (they may have been taken at different times)

b. Produce a series of photographs taken using specialist lenses, such as zoom, macro or wide-angle. Know the features of the different types of lens and when you would use each one.

c. Learn to develop and print your own photographs

d. Demonstrate how to mount slides, explain the advantages and disadvantages of card and glass mounts and describe the care of both types of mount

I have selected option a. and have taken a series of photographs showing the building of our conservatory. The build should have taken 6 - 8 weeks from order though in reality it took four months. Click here for my photo album

Clause 8 Explain the importance of storing prints, negatives and/or slides properly and the results of poor storage.

Films and prints are sensitive to prolonged exposure to light. Ideally negatives should be stored separately either in plastic wallets that they come in when professionally processed or in similar plastic wallets that can be purchased at stationers and then filed in ring binders. Prints are best stored in albums with captions/comments as to remind you when the photograph was taken. Prolong exposure to sunlight will fade the print.

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